These plans are written with the idea of a "crash course" in phonics for ages five through adult. This is Step Two of a three step program.
These plans are written with the idea of a "crash course" in phonics for ages five through adult. This is Step Two of a three step program. It has been designed over several years for the student of average or above average ability. It is meant to drill. It is designed for a studious person, even a very young person, who is mature enough to follow directions, who will sit still, and willingly cooperate.
It is organized in such a way that the student selected for this course must be able and willing to obey. The person must realize when a command to stop an activity is given, it is intended that such an activity cease. The goals of this program can only be accomplished with a student willing to cooperate.
Note: As a teacher you maintain control over your classroom. You will always have uncooperative children. You can only achieve the goals of this program as your students cooperate with you. Therefore, you will have some who will be highly successful and others who will not seem to accomplish the goals you set before them. For these latter, you may want to solicit assistance from parents who will work with you by reinforcing at home what you have taught in school. It takes time to mature and these particular students may have to repeat the program a few times.
A younger student wishing to partake at this level of learning is advised to have a supervisor appointed to work with him or her. A supervisor should always follow the curriculum and be faithful to its instructions. You should know at all times what your supervisor is teaching and what problems and difficulties he or she is experiencing. Don't wait for your supervisor to tell you. Many times that person becomes embarrassed and feels a decline in self esteem. You should always be ready to praise your supervisor, as well as the students, for a job well done. A supervisor may be a parent, grandparent, other relative, friend, neighbor or another student. A supervisor may even assist you in your classroom. But you are the teacher. You are the one who controls the program and you should know in detail what your supervisors are teaching the students!
The purpose of this phonics program is to lay a foundation on which to build the basics of reading. Thereby, it is called Foundational Phonics. This design is not for the purpose of replacing an established reading program in any school or home study curriculum. Its only purpose is to give a thorough introduction to the most important first basics of reading and its application. Under the supervision of a certified teacher, it enhances the reading program of any school and completes the fullness thereof.
Whenever possible it is best to go straight through the course as it is written without stopping to repeat. There is much repetition already provided and additional reinforcement is available to compliment the lesson plans as designed. Step Two should be studied as long as there appears to be any lack of understanding in any of the areas taught. Constant review and repetition are essential. The three final tests should not be given until it is believed that the student has acquired a mastery in Step Two.
Nothing is guaranteed in this life. I do not guarantee the final achievement of this course. That depends upon the abilities of each student to learn and the teacher to teach, the time spent in study, the seriousness of attempting the challenge with patience and faithfulness through daily focus.
A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
I have been a primary teacher for nearly thirty years, and I know the importance of getting a good foundation in reading. It has been proven that students who have a good grasp of phonics have been successful in all scholastic abilities throughout their lives.
I hereby give thanks to all those who have inspired me, believing in the importance of this work, and who have labored at helping me to finalize this program of study.
In particular I give credit to my husband, Bill Cooksey, who for countless hours, months and years encouraged me to organize my three steps without complaining about the time it took. The encouraging support of friends, family, and the enduring strength of God have produced Step Two of Foundational Phonics.
WHY STEP TWO?
Betty Tillapaugh, a Reading specialist in the State of Arizona, did extensive research on the phonetic approach to the English language some years back. Her findings included the following:
Forty-four basic sounds, or phonemes, comprise the spoken English language. These sounds are combined or blended together to form parts of speech called words. Words are composed of one or more syllables, or separate units of utterance.
A sentence is a string of words spoken one after another to communicate a thought. Naturally, correct pronunciation is needed to enhance understanding of the spoken words.
There are 251 combinations of letters from the English alphabet which are used to form 44 sounds. These combinations of letters are called graphemes.
Listening is considered very important and it is a skill essential to good communication, for without proper understanding of the spoken word, there is only weak communication at best.
There are 1,320 one syllable words that contain short vowel sounds. Only 88 of these monosyllables are not purely phonetic and must be comprehended as sight words.
A person who has a thorough knowledge of phonetics will be able to independently attack 94 percent of our English words that contain the short sounds of vowels.
Ten percent of our English syllables contain the long sounds of vowels made long by a final e. Ten percent of our English syllables contain long vowel equivalents, or digraphs, which is a combination of two letters representing a single elementary sound.
There are 3,378 monosyllables in our English language that contain vowel elements. Only 447 of these must be taught as sight words.
An individual will have independent command of 62 percent of our phonetic syllables when he or she recognizes short vowel blends. he or she will have the key to unlock another 20 percent of our phonetic syllables when he or she understands blends with vowels made long by final and long vowel equivalents. An understanding of vowels modified by r will contribute another 10 percent to the individual's reading ability. Only 8 percent of the reading situations confronting the person will need to be dealt with as special cases, or word analysis. Even then phonetic rules govern.
When Step Two is fully mastered, the student will have a solid foundation of the necessary phonetic skills upon which the English language is built.
Each potential supervisor
should ask the following questions:
HOW DO I QUALIFY TO BE A SUPERVISOR FOR A STUDENT WHO NEEDS MY SUPPORT?
Am I willing to give up my time to help someone read?
Am I willing to submit to a certified teacher and to assess my own competency before attempting to supervise another person?
If I find any weakness in my own review, am I willing to be taught in this course of study until I am assured of achievement before helping another individual?
Am I agreeable to the suggestion of constant review and reinforcement as outlined in Step Two? Am I willing to take the time necessary if the student assigned to me needs the extra drill?
Do I agree to monitor the three final tests according to the directions given me, in an honest and upright fashion, if I am asked to monitor the tests?
If I have answered all of the above in the affirmative, I am qualified to be a supervisor for Step Two.
THE LESSON PLANS WHICH YOU WILL FIND IN THE TABLE MENU FOR STEP TWO ARE WRITTEN IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THEY MAY BE GONE OVER IN TWENTY MINUTE SEGMENTS, FOUR TIMES A DAY, PLUS A TEN MINUTE ACTIVITY.
It is up to you as the teacher to decide the total length of time for study in a given session. The times should be determined as follows:
TWENTY MINUTES FOUR TIMES A DAY PLUS A TEN MINUTE ACTIVITY,
or FORTY MINUTES TWICE A DAY PLUS A TEN MINUTE ACTIVITY,
or ONE HOUR, FOLLOWED BY A LATER SESSION OF ONE/HALF HOUR WHICH INCLUDES THE TEN MINUTE ACTIVITY,
or NINETY MINUTES IN ONE SETTING!
As a teacher in the classroom, you probably will not have enough time available to implement the suggested time schedules given above. Therefore, stretch out the program. Make it last longer. Do twenty minutes a day four days out of the week and do the ten minute activity on the fifth day. You may even want to make that twenty minutes to play the games and/or review other games. Reinforcement is provided to maintain the skills taught and to make the second and other times of going through the lessons more versatile.
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Copyright © 1997 by Bill and Janae Cooksey, All rights reserved. No part of this material may be published in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.