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MARKINGS FOR STEP TWO AND INTRODUCTION TO STEP THREE


STUDY AND BE PREPARED! YOU CAN ONLY TEACH WHAT YOU KNOW!

It is not necessary for your students to know how to spell every word in the beginning, although that is what should be preferred. They should recognize the markings and be able to identify the sounds. Repetition of dictation will bring the rest of the word into proper focus. When you are working with your students, you will want to have a studious attitude mingled with joyous anticipation. Let them know that you expect them to do a good job and praise them often! When correcting errors, remain positive!

LEARN HOW TO MARK LETTER COMBINATIONS ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTIONS BELOW.

Be sure to read this whole page before you begin to teach it. At the bottom of this page you will find a table of links to illustrations of the various markings contained within our Step Two program.

The short vowels are a, e, i, o, u. Mark them with a happy face smile.

Put a smile right above the short vowel in the word. A smile looks like the letter U.
a cat, ham, an, grab at, hat, black
hag, that, map, brag, hag, cram, strap, map, jam, tan, van
gag, pad, am, stash, gnat, flat, axe sap, gad, lag, tag, brand, pan, gnat, flat

Mark the short vowel (a) with a smile above the letter.

The smile represents a happy baby.
The short a sounds like a baby's cry "Waaaaa!"
Mark the short a with the smile of a happy baby.

The horizontal line represents the stick that a dog wants to retrieve. When your student marks the long vowel with the horizontal line, grab for the dog's stick and yell, "Got it!" Let your student repeat the long vowel's name. Remember the long vowel (a) says its own name.

Mark the long vowel (a) with one horizontal line above the letter. wait, pane, shame, flame, gate, braid, sake, bathe, waif

SHORT A VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!



class, mad, map, stand, hand

man, rat, land, lamb, tan, ran

sat, hat, pat, cat, rat, fat, trap

stack, half, staff, tramp, dad


The short e sounds like an elderly man who can't hear and cups his ear with his hand to hear better. He says, "Eh?"

Mark the short vowel (e) with smile above the letter. egg, best, blest, West, next, fetch, set, met, mess, Ted, yes step, them, hen, beg, bred, when, Ken, gem

The long vowel (e) will say its own name. Mark the long vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter. Remember to pretend it's a stick that a dog wants. Reach for it. Grab it. Yell "I got it!" Let your student respond by saying the name of the long vowel (e).

Mark the long vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter. tree, sea, steam, gleam, need, speed, weed, bleed, cream, see, feel

SHORT E VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!


led, wed, jet, met, let, net

set, yet, pet, yell, bell, fell

sell, pelt, felt, melt, pest, Tess

nest, rest, rent, sent, tent, went


The short i makes a sound that a very well dressed person who sits on a chair covered with peanut butter might make. Iiiiiiiii (As in ick instead of yuk!)


Mark the short vowel (i) with a smile above the letter.
if, crib, stick, with, him, pin, pick, sick, fig, pig, wig, whip, lip, kick, pit
slick, sick, spin,  cyst, cinch

The long vowel (i) will say its own name. Remember the stick in the air. Mark the long vowel (i) with one horizontal line above the letter. fine, mine, whine, kind, lime, dime, ride, pie, kite, bite,

SHORT I VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!


him, sin, if, bit, big, it

is, split, hit, slid, sip, nip

rid, rim, fix, six, fig, dig

pig, din, fib, bib, rid, rig

The short o is the sound a dehydrated person who just crawled across the desert
in the intense sun 
might make upon receiving a glass of cold lemonade. 
Aaaaaah!

Mark the short vowel (o) with a smile above the letter.
octopus, hot, flop, not, rot, cot, mom, crop, stop, pop, bomb, Tom
knot, plot, crop, odd, throb, knob, lot, drop

The long vowel (o) will say its own name.
Mark the long vowel (o) with one horizontal line above the letter.
rode, robe, home, Rome, phone, bone, load, moan, groan, cone, prone


SHORT O VOWEL SOUNDS
Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!

got, cob, job, cot, lot

sob. God, rob, slob, hog, hop

mop, lot, dot, jot, dot, pot

rot, not, pop, top, sop, rod

The short u is the sound made by a person who tries to lift a very heavy table.  Uuuuuuuh! 

Mark the short vowel (u) with a smile above the letter. umbrella, stuff, blunder, thunder, must, rust, rum, fun, lunch, brunch, stuff cup, plump, crumb, stumble, lump, dump, hump, stump

The long vowel (u) will say its own name. Mark the long vowel (u) with one horizontal line above the letter. blue, hue, mule, rule, Beulah

SHORT U VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!


up, cub, hub, cup, us, rust

bud, mud, mug, hug, dug, tug

sun, run, bun, rut, lung, dust

must, rust, gust, drum, hung, romp

mutt, trust, just, stuff, huff, dusting

but, rusting, Russ, up, bluff, strut


MIXED UP  SHORT VOWEL SOUNDS
Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!

lad, sob, rust, fin, fit, hot

rug, drums, pat, ten, mix

his, dot, hut, rot, get, tent

hug, gum, help, blend, dig, graph, lad

drum, lift, sift, sass, hot, cog

fog, frog, fun, had, wet, cut

When two vowels stand together, the first one is long and the second one is

silent. Mark the first vowel with one horizontal line above it and cross out

the second vowel.

boat, tree, sea, meat, mean, beans, steam, stream, gleam, beat, coat, moat, tried, team

Think of the two vowels as two space monsters in a fight. The first space monster makes all the noise and the only sound he can say is his own name because he doesn't know earth language. The second space monster can't get get his mouth to move because it's too swollen from the fight. Thus, he says nothing.

Remember when two vowels go walking the first one does all the talking.

Mark the vowel (a) with two dots above the letter. The two dots represent two eye balls that watch the letter r.
car, far, star, scar

Perhaps the two dots represent two planets that have not yet been discovered.
Your student may want to travel to those planets and plant grass, flowers, trees
and import insects, animals, people, build houses etc.

There is no limit to what stories you and your student can come up with
each time this marking is used.
Allow your student to expand his or her imagination.

Mark the vowel (a) with two dots beneath the letter.

The two dots represent two stools that the a has to sit on because
he's such a big guy that he can't sit on just one stool.

ball, call, stall, all

The two dots may represent two monster bugs!
When the a has to step over them, he get nervous, and runs fast,
right into Big Daddy R!
Let your student make up another story to go with this marking.

Mark the vowel (e) with a smile above the letter.
The smile represents a happy baby.

fed, met, Tess, set, pet, when, then, send, mend, tend, best, West, less, mess

Perhaps the smile is the bottom of a cliff.
Your student may want to pretend that he or she's a helicopter
flying over the cliff.
Zoom! Zoom!

Perhaps the smile is the basement floor of a skyscraper building
and your student is the building designer.

Allow your student to make up another story to go with this marking.

Mark the vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter.

The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve.

stream, green, tree, free, steep, leap, treat, seat, deep, asleep, weep

Perhaps the horizontal line is a tightrope in a circus show.
Your student may want to pretend that he or she's an acrobat
walking across the tightrope, high above the audience.
Can you hear the audience gasp?

Perhaps the horizontal line is the Interstate Highway
and your student may want to pretend that he or she is driving
the latest model car with sixteen wheels. Zoom! Zoom!

Allow your student to make up another story to go with this marking.

Mark the vowel e with a wavy line above the letter.
The wavy line represents a worm.

her, germ, fern, herb, jerk, Vern The wavy line represents a worm with a perm!

Whether your student marks just the vowel e
or the entire Murmor Diphthong er with the wavy line, consider it correct.
Some students have to see the whole Murmor Diphthong marked
in order to remember it. Either way is considered correct.
Allow your student to mark Murmur Diphthongs whichever way is easier
for him or her to remember.

Mark the vowel (i) with a smile above the letter. The smile represents a happy baby.

pig, tip, hit, win, tulip, flip, whip, kick, trick, Tim, sin, thin, dim, him, spin

Mark the vowel (i) with one horizontal line above the letter. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. pine, tide, rise, nine, pine, abide, hide, ride, mine, lime, dime, crime, shine

Sometimes i sounds like long e, as seen in the word "giddiness".
Mark the i which sounds like long e with two dots on top of the entire i.
Since the i already has a dot above it,
place the two dots above the one already there.
It will look like two eyes and a nose above the body of the i.


police, petite, antique, magazine, fatigue, intrigue

caprice, female, priest, neither, submarine

quarantine, memory, enemy, Deity

When a word or syllable ends with a vowel/consonant/vowel 

and the final vowel is the letter e, 

then the first vowel is usually a long vowel sound. 

(Put one horizontal line above it.)  
(Cross out the final vowel:  e  or make an X above its head.)


Think of the first vowel as a dog playing with a bone above its head. 

The consonant which follows is trying to catch the tossed bone 

but to no avail.  

The final e just gives up and sits down to quietly pout. 

He doesn't make a sound.

Dictate these words!

Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!

mat,      mate
fat,       fate
fad,       fade
rag,       rage
Sam,      same
mad,      made

gate, jade, blade, lace, grade, place



Mark the vowel (i) with a wavy line above the letter.

The wavy line represents a worm.

bird, fir, mirth



Mark the short vowel (o) with a smile above the letter.

The smile represents a happy baby.

hot, nod, Ron, mop



Mark the long vowel (o) with one horizontal line above the letter.

The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve.

home, road, rope



Mark the short vowel (u) with a smile above the letter.

The smile represents a happy baby.

hut, pup, rug, up



Mark the long vowel (u) with one horizontal line above the letter.

The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve.

huge, glue, rule


Mark the consonant (c) with a line through the middle of the back of the letter.

The line through the middle of the back represents the belt
which the letter is wearing to hold his trousers in place.
C only wears trousers whenever he sounds like K.

card, can, cake, car, candy, cuff confine, conspire, confide, consent, compel, case, cave, coal

Mark the consonant (c) with a comma beneath the letter.

The comma represents a tail because C is a dog.
C is only a dog whenever he sounds like S.
When c sounds like s make a tail which resembles a comma.
The tail hangs down from the bottom side of the c.

city, cease, cinema, cite, city, cigar decency, December, cents, spice, icicle, solace, cease, embrace

Mark the consonant (g) with one dot above the letter.

The dot represents one eye ball which watches the g whenever g sounds like j.
The dot is a magical eyeball which causes the the g to sound just like j.

gem, gym, Genesis, gin, Gene frigid, digit, gracious, gyp, gent

Mark the consonant (g) with one horizontal line above the letter.

The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve.
The only time g can play with the dog is whenever he sounds like a dog growling...
grrrrr.
The g has a bone on top of his head.
Bump!
G is a hard head!

gold, gum, game, gab, garb, God garbage, got, game, glory, gallon, gallop, Godly, Gospel, gossip,

MIXED UP HARD AND SOFT G/C FIND THE RULE THAT CORRESPONDS. MARK THE WORDS AND EXPLAIN YOUR MARKINGS ACCORDING TO THE RULE.


cyst, city, gem, gym, cot, can

acid, cave, solace, brace, trace, case

cut, December, ate, incessant, traffic

came, cost, cite, grade, got, gleam

gist, gum, renegade, glisten, space

general, gang, gym, giddiness, gibe

gender, gentile, go, Gus, mug

strange, gentle, gearing, sluggish, Gene



Mark the vowels (oo) with a smile above the letters.
The smile represents happy twin babies who make sweet baby sounds.

book, look, shook, Cooksey

hood, hook, wool, rook

crook, stood, brook, crook,

cook, nook, soot, good, hoodwink


Mark the vowels (oo) with one horizontal line above the letters.
The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog, at play, 

wants to retrieve from the twin babies. 

broom, spoon, soon, doom, room, tool, spool

tool, groove, spool, boom, fool

groom, school, smooth, gloom, soothe

gloomy, moody, noon, moon, stool, pool


Mark the vowel (y) with one horizontal line above the letter.
The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. 

The only time y can play with the dog is whenever he says the same sound 

that i says in the word pie.

try, cry, fly, sky, my

Mark the vowel (y) with two lines above the letter. The two lines represent big bones that a dog wants to retrieve.
The only time y can play by tossing the bones is when he screams out
the sound of eeeeeeeeeeee.

baby, pretty, silly, Billy, really

Mark the consonant (y) with a smile above the letter. The smile represents a happy baby. The only time that y is a happy baby
is when he sings like the sound of i beneath a smile.

myth, cyst, gyp

Mark the consonant (s) with an upside down capital T beneath the letter.

easy, his, was

The upside down capital T represents a skateboard.
The only time s can play with the skateboard is when he makes the sound of z. The upside down capital T may represent an unidentified flying saucer.
The only time s can board the UFO is when he makes the sound of z.

When s sounds like sh as in sure, mark the s with a box on top of its head.
That means that the lonely s believes himself to be a digraph.
He thinks it in his mind and that's why he says the sh sound.

The box above the head of the lonely s may also represent an elevator.
Just think of the lonely s getting onto an imaginary elevator
and rising up to the clouds!

Allow your student to come up with another idea
as to what the box above the s may mean.
When he or she has put input into the marking,
it will take on more meaning.


Look out for lonely T!  He thinks he is a twin but he isn't really a twin. 
Because he thinks he's a twin he will speak for both.

When t sounds like ch as in feature, mark the t with a box on top of its head
and slant a line through it from the top left down to the bottom right. 

That means that the lonely t believes himself to be a digraph. 
He thinks he has an imaginary twin to play with  (ch)
and together they make the sound of ch as in feature.

Perhaps the lonely t believes that he's a train.  
Can you hear the sound of a train as he rolls over the track? 
Ch ch ch ch ch ch



Digraphs are like twins, sometimes triplets, who only make one unique sound.  

They pride themselves on standing out in a crowd of letters.  They like to be different!

DIGRAPHS: Mark the digraph with a square around it.
The box around the digraph is like a closet.

Put all digraphs in a closet. Make the box around the digraph within the word.

Another box represents a box that packages the digraph when it is sent out in the mail,
which is every time you see it.

Put a mailbox or closet (box) around the digraphs in the words that follow:


Digraphs:                          Words:

sh                                  she shut shop shed

ch                                  chop chug church chip

tch                                 stitch patch ditch kitchen

ck                                  slick wick tack lock knock

th                                  the that thud thin spot

wh                                 whale when what whack

gh                                  ghost thought bought

gn                                  gnat 

kn                                  know knot kneel

ph                                  phone phonics photograph

Watch for blends! They are so lovable and cute! They really like each other.
They like each other so much that when they speak, it sounds like a note
in a harmonious melody flowing smoothly into the following note.

BLENDS Mark the blend with one horizontal line beneath it.
The line is like a curb on a street. The blend is standing on the curb.
Make the line right underneath the blend.

The horizontal line represents a speed boat.
Every time you see a blend it will ride a speed boat.

Put a street curb or speed boat (horizontal line) beneath the digraphs
in the words that follow:


Blends:                          Words:

br                                  bring brag 

cr                                  crumb cracker

dr                                  drive drain 

fr                                  fry frisky

gr                                  grow grab 

str                                  string strong

sn.                                  snow sniff 

tr                                  tray tremble

sp                                  spoon spin 

st                                  stick sting

sw                                  swim swap 

sm                                  small smock

tw                                  twin twig 

bl                                  blend blister

cl                                  cloud clang 

fl                                  fled fly

gl                                  glass glitter 

pl                                  plane plaster

VOWEL DIPHTHONGS

Mark the vowel diphthong with a wavy line beneath it.

The wavy line represents a big worm. Every time you see a vowel diphthong,
you will see him with his pet worm.

Put a wavy line beneath the digraphs in the words that follow:


Digraphs:                          Words:

aw                                  crawl paw

ew                                  few stew

ow                                  howl cow snow

ou                                  mount found

oi                                  point coin

oy                                  boy toy



DICTATE THESE WORDS TO YOUR STUDENT.
MARK THE FOLLOWING WORDS ACCORDING TO THE RULES.

HAVE YOUR STUDENT EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR EACH MARKING.
FIND THE CORRESPONDING RULE.


shame, he, wild, fold, free

golden, meek, keep, reel, weep, peep

deep, weed, deed, heed, tree, knee

mile, pile, mild, file, spike, like

hike, mike, fire, hire, wire, wife

life, ride, bide, hide, tire, pike

ode, hold, told, note, vote, dote

cone, home, bone, phone, tone, bolt

jolt, mode, rode, gold, sold, cold

lute, mute, cute, glue, dune, tube

cube, huge, blue, jute, lure, pure

chip, ship, blot, bum, plump, slot

hot, grab, brag, belt, slip, slop

plot, trot, hump, jump, stab, slab

cram, stand, fled, bleed, stop, clod

mild, wild, child, fold, pop, mold

shut, hush, vest, West, mess, drip

whip, plot, pump, flit, clad, dad

dash, fish, frog, king, spite, crib

bent, lad, lass, grit, gift, spent

poke, mope, dean, lean, gleam, stream

mold, flame, spears, ear, boat, coat

state, slate, shape, quite, bloat, globe

tribe, hide, creed, steep, craze, blaze

probe, blame, spire, drone, stone, hire

whine, spine, smite, bead, sold, moan

play, stay, fray, Ray, gray, may

pray, jay, lay, day, pay, they

ink, monk, link, stink, wink, bay

sunk, pink, gray, lank, mink, monkey

pay, drink, trunk, hey, drunk, stunk

flunk, bunk, junk, congress, language, Ray

stay, singular, pink, gust, sink, dunk





Choose the link below to take you to a sample picture of your choice.

 

Below you will find a table of pictures of the markings taught in Step Two:
Two vowels side by side

oa ee ea ie

Two dots above

ar

Two dots below

all

Wavy line or worm


er


Long and short vowels

a e i o u

C with a belt

hard c ie can

C with a tail

soft c ie city

S with upside down T below

s sounds like z ie was

S with box above

s sounds like sh ie sure

Split vowel; final e

ie came

T with slash in box above

t sounds like ch ie feature

Box around Digraphs

ph ie digraphs

Line under Blends

bl ie blends

   

 


BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MOON WORD



 

Copyright  1997 by Bill and Janae Cooksey,  All rights reserved.  

No part of this material may be published in any form or by any means 

without permission in writing from the publisher.
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