STUDY AND BE PREPARED! YOU CAN ONLY TEACH WHAT YOU KNOW!
It is not necessary for your students to know how to spell every word in the beginning, although that is what should be preferred. They should recognize the markings and be able to identify the sounds. Repetition of dictation will bring the rest of the word into proper focus. When you are working with your students, you will want to have a studious attitude mingled with joyous anticipation. Let them know that you expect them to do a good job and praise them often! When correcting errors, remain positive!
LEARN HOW TO MARK LETTER COMBINATIONS ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTIONS BELOW.
Be sure to read this whole page before you begin to teach it. At the bottom of this page you will find a table of links to illustrations of the various markings contained within our Step Two program.
The short vowels are a, e, i, o, u. Mark them with a happy face smile.
Put a smile right above the short vowel in the word. A
smile looks like the letter U.
a cat, ham, an, grab at, hat, black
hag, that, map, brag, hag, cram, strap, map, jam, tan, van
gag, pad, am, stash, gnat, flat, axe sap, gad, lag, tag, brand, pan, gnat, flat
Mark the short vowel (a) with a smile above the letter.
The smile represents a happy baby.
The short a sounds like a baby's cry "Waaaaa!"
Mark the short a with the smile of a happy baby.
The horizontal line represents the stick that a dog wants to retrieve. When your student marks the long vowel with the horizontal line, grab for the dog's stick and yell, "Got it!" Let your student repeat the long vowel's name. Remember the long vowel (a) says its own name.
Mark the long vowel (a) with one horizontal line above the letter. wait, pane, shame, flame, gate, braid, sake, bathe, waif
SHORT A VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!
class, mad, map, stand, hand man, rat, land, lamb, tan, ran sat, hat, pat, cat, rat, fat, trap stack, half, staff, tramp, dad
The short e sounds like an elderly man who can't hear and cups his ear with his hand to hear better. He says, "Eh?"
Mark the short vowel (e) with smile above the letter. egg, best, blest, West, next, fetch, set, met, mess, Ted, yes step, them, hen, beg, bred, when, Ken, gem
The long vowel (e) will say its own name. Mark the long vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter. Remember to pretend it's a stick that a dog wants. Reach for it. Grab it. Yell "I got it!" Let your student respond by saying the name of the long vowel (e).
Mark the long vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter. tree, sea, steam, gleam, need, speed, weed, bleed, cream, see, feel
SHORT E VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!
led, wed, jet, met, let, net set, yet, pet, yell, bell, fell sell, pelt, felt, melt, pest, Tess nest, rest, rent, sent, tent, went
The short i makes a sound that a very well dressed person who sits on a chair covered with peanut butter might make. Iiiiiiiii (As in ick instead of yuk!)
Mark the short vowel (i) with a smile above the letter. if, crib, stick, with, him, pin, pick, sick, fig, pig, wig, whip, lip, kick, pit slick, sick, spin, cyst, cinch
The long vowel (i) will say its own name. Remember the stick in the air. Mark the long vowel (i) with one horizontal line above the letter. fine, mine, whine, kind, lime, dime, ride, pie, kite, bite,
SHORT I VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!
him, sin, if, bit, big, it is, split, hit, slid, sip, nip rid, rim, fix, six, fig, dig pig, din, fib, bib, rid, rig
The short o is the sound a dehydrated person who just crawled across the desert in the intense sun might make upon receiving a glass of cold lemonade. Aaaaaah!
Mark the short vowel (o) with a smile above the letter. octopus, hot, flop, not, rot, cot, mom, crop, stop, pop, bomb, Tom knot, plot, crop, odd, throb, knob, lot, drop The long vowel (o) will say its own name. Mark the long vowel (o) with one horizontal line above the letter. rode, robe, home, Rome, phone, bone, load, moan, groan, cone, prone SHORT O VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you! got, cob, job, cot, lot sob. God, rob, slob, hog, hop mop, lot, dot, jot, dot, pot rot, not, pop, top, sop, rod
The short u is the sound made by a person who tries to lift a very heavy table. Uuuuuuuh!
Mark the short vowel (u) with a smile above the letter. umbrella, stuff, blunder, thunder, must, rust, rum, fun, lunch, brunch, stuff cup, plump, crumb, stumble, lump, dump, hump, stump
The long vowel (u) will say its own name. Mark the long vowel (u) with one horizontal line above the letter. blue, hue, mule, rule, Beulah
SHORT U VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!
up, cub, hub, cup, us, rust bud, mud, mug, hug, dug, tug sun, run, bun, rut, lung, dust must, rust, gust, drum, hung, romp mutt, trust, just, stuff, huff, dusting but, rusting, Russ, up, bluff, strut
MIXED UP SHORT VOWEL SOUNDS Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you!
lad, sob, rust, fin, fit, hot rug, drums, pat, ten, mix his, dot, hut, rot, get, tent hug, gum, help, blend, dig, graph, lad drum, lift, sift, sass, hot, cog fog, frog, fun, had, wet, cut
When two vowels stand together, the first one is long and the second one is silent. Mark the first vowel with one horizontal line above it and cross out the second vowel.
boat, tree, sea, meat, mean, beans, steam, stream, gleam, beat, coat, moat, tried, team
Think of the two vowels as two space monsters in a fight. The first space monster makes all the noise and the only sound he can say is his own name because he doesn't know earth language. The second space monster can't get get his mouth to move because it's too swollen from the fight. Thus, he says nothing.
Remember when two vowels go walking the first one does all the talking.
Mark the vowel (a) with two dots above the letter. The
two dots represent two eye balls that watch the letter r.
car, far, star, scar
Perhaps the two dots represent two planets that have
not yet been discovered.
Your student may want to travel to those planets and plant grass, flowers, trees
and import insects, animals, people, build houses etc.
There is no limit to what stories you and your student
can come up with
each time this marking is used.
Allow your student to expand his or her imagination.
Mark the vowel (a) with two dots beneath the letter.
The two dots represent two stools that the a has to
sit on because
he's such a big guy that he can't sit on just one stool.
ball, call, stall, all
The two dots may represent two monster bugs!
When the a has to step over them, he get nervous, and runs fast,
right into Big Daddy R!
Let your student make up another story to go with this marking.
Mark the vowel (e) with a smile above the letter.
The smile represents a happy baby.
fed, met, Tess, set, pet, when, then, send, mend, tend, best, West, less, mess
Perhaps the smile is the bottom of a cliff.
Your student may want to pretend that he or she's a helicopter
flying over the cliff.
Perhaps the smile is the basement floor of a
and your student is the building designer.
Allow your student to make up another story to go with this marking.
Mark the vowel (e) with one horizontal line above the letter.
The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve.
stream, green, tree, free, steep, leap, treat, seat, deep, asleep, weep
Perhaps the horizontal line is a tightrope in a circus
Your student may want to pretend that he or she's an acrobat
walking across the tightrope, high above the audience.
Can you hear the audience gasp?
Perhaps the horizontal line is the Interstate Highway
and your student may want to pretend that he or she is driving
the latest model car with sixteen wheels. Zoom! Zoom!
Allow your student to make up another story to go with this marking.
Mark the vowel e with a wavy line above the letter.
The wavy line represents a worm.
her, germ, fern, herb, jerk, Vern The wavy line represents a worm with a perm!
Whether your student marks just the vowel e
or the entire Murmor Diphthong er with the wavy line, consider it correct.
Some students have to see the whole Murmor Diphthong marked
in order to remember it. Either way is considered correct.
Allow your student to mark Murmur Diphthongs whichever way is easier
for him or her to remember.
Mark the vowel (i) with a smile above the letter. The smile represents a happy baby.
pig, tip, hit, win, tulip, flip, whip, kick, trick, Tim, sin, thin, dim, him, spin
Mark the vowel (i) with one horizontal line above the letter. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. pine, tide, rise, nine, pine, abide, hide, ride, mine, lime, dime, crime, shine
Sometimes i sounds like long e, as seen in the word
Mark the i which sounds like long e with two dots on top of the entire i.
Since the i already has a dot above it,
place the two dots above the one already there.
It will look like two eyes and a nose above the body of the i.
police, petite, antique, magazine, fatigue, intrigue caprice, female, priest, neither, submarine quarantine, memory, enemy, Deity When a word or syllable ends with a vowel/consonant/vowel and the final vowel is the letter e, then the first vowel is usually a long vowel sound. (Put one horizontal line above it.) (Cross out the final vowel: e or make an X above its head.)
Think of the first vowel as a dog playing with a bone above its head. The consonant which follows is trying to catch the tossed bone but to no avail. The final e just gives up and sits down to quietly pout. He doesn't make a sound.
Dictate these words! Show your students how to mark these words and read them back to you! mat, mate fat, fate fad, fade rag, rage Sam, same mad, made gate, jade, blade, lace, grade, place Mark the vowel (i) with a wavy line above the letter. The wavy line represents a worm. bird, fir, mirth Mark the short vowel (o) with a smile above the letter. The smile represents a happy baby. hot, nod, Ron, mop Mark the long vowel (o) with one horizontal line above the letter. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. home, road, rope Mark the short vowel (u) with a smile above the letter. The smile represents a happy baby. hut, pup, rug, up Mark the long vowel (u) with one horizontal line above the letter. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. huge, glue, rule
Mark the consonant (c) with a line through the middle of the back of the letter.
The line through the middle of the back represents the
which the letter is wearing to hold his trousers in place.
C only wears trousers whenever he sounds like K.
card, can, cake, car, candy, cuff confine, conspire, confide, consent, compel, case, cave, coal
Mark the consonant (c) with a comma beneath the letter.
The comma represents a tail because C is a dog.
C is only a dog whenever he sounds like S.
When c sounds like s make a tail which resembles a comma.
The tail hangs down from the bottom side of the c.
city, cease, cinema, cite, city, cigar decency, December, cents, spice, icicle, solace, cease, embrace
Mark the consonant (g) with one dot above the letter.
The dot represents one eye ball which watches the g
whenever g sounds like j.
The dot is a magical eyeball which causes the the g to sound just like j.
gem, gym, Genesis, gin, Gene frigid, digit, gracious, gyp, gent
Mark the consonant (g) with one horizontal line above the letter.
The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog
wants to retrieve.
The only time g can play with the dog is whenever he sounds like a dog growling...
The g has a bone on top of his head.
G is a hard head!
gold, gum, game, gab, garb, God garbage, got, game, glory, gallon, gallop, Godly, Gospel, gossip,
MIXED UP HARD AND SOFT G/C FIND THE RULE THAT CORRESPONDS. MARK THE WORDS AND EXPLAIN YOUR MARKINGS ACCORDING TO THE RULE.
cyst, city, gem, gym, cot, can acid, cave, solace, brace, trace, case cut, December, ate, incessant, traffic came, cost, cite, grade, got, gleam gist, gum, renegade, glisten, space general, gang, gym, giddiness, gibe gender, gentile, go, Gus, mug strange, gentle, gearing, sluggish, Gene
Mark the vowels (oo) with a smile above the letters. The smile represents happy twin babies who make sweet baby sounds.
book, look, shook, Cooksey hood, hook, wool, rook crook, stood, brook, crook, cook, nook, soot, good, hoodwink
Mark the vowels (oo) with one horizontal line above the letters. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog, at play, wants to retrieve from the twin babies.
broom, spoon, soon, doom, room, tool, spool tool, groove, spool, boom, fool groom, school, smooth, gloom, soothe gloomy, moody, noon, moon, stool, pool
Mark the vowel (y) with one horizontal line above the letter. The horizontal line represents the stick which a dog wants to retrieve. The only time y can play with the dog is whenever he says the same sound that i says in the word pie.
try, cry, fly, sky, my
Mark the vowel (y) with two lines above the letter.
The two lines represent big bones that a dog wants to retrieve.
The only time y can play by tossing the bones is when he screams out
the sound of eeeeeeeeeeee.
baby, pretty, silly, Billy, really
Mark the consonant (y) with a smile above the letter.
The smile represents a happy baby. The only time that y is a
is when he sings like the sound of i beneath a smile.
myth, cyst, gyp
Mark the consonant (s) with an upside down capital T beneath the letter.
easy, his, was
The upside down capital T represents a skateboard.
The only time s can play with the skateboard is when he makes the sound of z. The upside down capital T may represent an unidentified flying saucer.
The only time s can board the UFO is when he makes the sound of z.
When s sounds like sh as in sure, mark the s with a
box on top of its head.
That means that the lonely s believes himself to be a digraph.
He thinks it in his mind and that's why he says the sh sound.
The box above the head of the lonely s may also
represent an elevator.
Just think of the lonely s getting onto an imaginary elevator
and rising up to the clouds!
Allow your student to come up with another idea
as to what the box above the s may mean.
When he or she has put input into the marking,
it will take on more meaning.
Look out for lonely T! He thinks he is a twin but he isn't really a twin. Because he thinks he's a twin he will speak for both. When t sounds like ch as in feature, mark the t with a box on top of its head and slant a line through it from the top left down to the bottom right. That means that the lonely t believes himself to be a digraph. He thinks he has an imaginary twin to play with (ch) and together they make the sound of ch as in feature. Perhaps the lonely t believes that he's a train. Can you hear the sound of a train as he rolls over the track? Ch ch ch ch ch ch
Digraphs are like twins, sometimes triplets, who only make one unique sound. They pride themselves on standing out in a crowd of letters. They like to be different!
DIGRAPHS: Mark the digraph with a square around it.
The box around the digraph is like a closet.
Put all digraphs in a closet. Make the box around the digraph within the word.
Another box represents a box that packages the digraph
when it is sent out in the mail,
which is every time you see it.
Put a mailbox or closet (box) around the digraphs in the words that follow:
Digraphs: Words: sh she shut shop shed ch chop chug church chip tch stitch patch ditch kitchen ck slick wick tack lock knock th the that thud thin spot wh whale when what whack gh ghost thought bought gn gnat kn know knot kneel ph phone phonics photograph
Watch for blends! They are so lovable and cute! They
really like each other.
They like each other so much that when they speak, it sounds like a note
in a harmonious melody flowing smoothly into the following note.
BLENDS Mark the blend with one horizontal line beneath
The line is like a curb on a street. The blend is standing on the curb.
Make the line right underneath the blend.
The horizontal line represents a speed boat.
Every time you see a blend it will ride a speed boat.
Put a street curb or speed boat (horizontal line)
beneath the digraphs
in the words that follow:
Blends: Words: br bring brag cr crumb cracker dr drive drain fr fry frisky gr grow grab str string strong sn. snow sniff tr tray tremble sp spoon spin st stick sting sw swim swap sm small smock tw twin twig bl blend blister cl cloud clang fl fled fly gl glass glitter pl plane plaster
Mark the vowel diphthong with a wavy line beneath it.
The wavy line represents a big worm. Every time you
see a vowel diphthong,
you will see him with his pet worm.
Put a wavy line beneath the digraphs in the words that follow:
Digraphs: Words: aw crawl paw ew few stew ow howl cow snow ou mount found oi point coin oy boy toy
DICTATE THESE WORDS TO YOUR STUDENT. MARK THE FOLLOWING WORDS ACCORDING TO THE RULES.
HAVE YOUR STUDENT EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR EACH MARKING.
FIND THE CORRESPONDING RULE.
shame, he, wild, fold, free golden, meek, keep, reel, weep, peep deep, weed, deed, heed, tree, knee mile, pile, mild, file, spike, like hike, mike, fire, hire, wire, wife life, ride, bide, hide, tire, pike ode, hold, told, note, vote, dote cone, home, bone, phone, tone, bolt jolt, mode, rode, gold, sold, cold lute, mute, cute, glue, dune, tube cube, huge, blue, jute, lure, pure chip, ship, blot, bum, plump, slot hot, grab, brag, belt, slip, slop plot, trot, hump, jump, stab, slab cram, stand, fled, bleed, stop, clod mild, wild, child, fold, pop, mold shut, hush, vest, West, mess, drip whip, plot, pump, flit, clad, dad dash, fish, frog, king, spite, crib bent, lad, lass, grit, gift, spent poke, mope, dean, lean, gleam, stream mold, flame, spears, ear, boat, coat state, slate, shape, quite, bloat, globe tribe, hide, creed, steep, craze, blaze probe, blame, spire, drone, stone, hire whine, spine, smite, bead, sold, moan play, stay, fray, Ray, gray, may pray, jay, lay, day, pay, they ink, monk, link, stink, wink, bay sunk, pink, gray, lank, mink, monkey pay, drink, trunk, hey, drunk, stunk flunk, bunk, junk, congress, language, Ray stay, singular, pink, gust, sink, dunk
Choose the link below to take you to a sample picture of your choice.
|Two vowels side by side
oa ee ea ie
|Two dots above
|Two dots below
|Wavy line or worm
Long and short vowels
a e i o u
|C with a belt
hard c ie can
|C with a tail
soft c ie city
|S with upside down T below
s sounds like z ie was
|S with box above
s sounds like sh ie sure
|Split vowel; final e
|T with slash in box above
t sounds like ch ie feature
|Box around Digraphs
ph ie digraphs
|Line under Blends
bl ie blends
BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MOON WORD
Copyright © 1997 by Bill and Janae Cooksey, All rights reserved. No part of this material may be published in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.