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Digraphs are TWO or more consonants that come together to form ONE unique sound of its own.

SAMPLES: sh, ch, tch, th, ck, wh, gh, gn, kn, ph

shut, chop, fetch, them, lick, when, ghost, gnat, know, phone

Blends are TWO or more consonants that come together to make a harmonious sound that is so compatible to the pleasure of a listening ear that it sounds as if one part easily flows into the other.

SAMPLES: br, cr, dr, fr, gr, tr, str, sn, sp, st, sw, sm, tw, bl, cl, fl, gl, pl

bread, cross, drive, from, grow, tried, string, snap, spin, stop, swing, small, twin, blend, clean, flash, glass, plan

Vowel Combinations are vowels that pair up, side by side, making the LONG sound of the first vowel. The second vowel remains silent.

SAMPLES: ee, ea, ai, ay, oa

tree, heat, maid, say, boat

Vowel Diphthongs are two vowels which come together to make up a sound UNLIKE the regular sound of either vowel.

SAMPLES: aw, ew, ow, ou, oi, oy

paw, few, how, pout, noise, boy

R controlled vowels are vowels that TRY to make its own sound but get swallowed up by the influence of the R which follows it.

SAMPLES: ar, er, ir, or, ur, ire, are, air, ore, ure

star, her, bird, cord, hurt, fire, dare, chair, store, lure

Split Vowels with silent e are those vowels that precede a consonant which is followed by the final vowel (E) in a word. The vowel before the consonant makes the sound of a LONG vowel sound while the E following the consonant is silent. SAMPLES: ine, one, ime, ate, ame

fine, bone, shine, crime, hate, came

Ending Sounds are those parts of a word that come at the end and are usually repeated in many other words.

SAMPLES: ing, ss, ll, ang, alk, amp, ind, ight, y, ice, our, out

sing, class, fall, bang, walk, lamp, find, light, pretty, nice, hour, pout

Long and Short oo are the LONG and SHORT sounds of the vowel combination OO.

SAMPLES: oo LONG: doom, moon, spoon, swoon
SHORT: book, hook, look, cook

Hard and Soft G and C are those sounds of G and C which SOUND hard or soft. The hard sound of G is like a dog's growl, grrrr while the hard sound of C is the sound of K. The soft sound of G is the same as the sound of J while the soft sound of C is the same sound as you hear in S. Normally, they follow certain rules for sounding as they do. (See the section on Rules for more information)

SAMPLES: g, c Hard g and c

gum, good, God, come, can, catch

Soft g and c

gym, ginger, gem, cylinder, cyst, cider

Copyright 1997 by Bill and Janae Cooksey, All rights reserved. No part of this material may be published in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. 1