EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections
A Pronoun takes the place of nouns: she, him, it. PRO means "for" or "to replace", referring to a noun.
The use of pronouns make a sentence less bulky and more clear.
Example (no pronouns used): Clara wanted to dye Clara's hair so Clara went to the store to buy hair dye, then Clara went home to dye Clara's hair.
Example (pronouns used): Clara wanted to dye her hair so she went to the store to buy hair dye, then she went home to dye her hair.
Now let's take the above example apart and locate the pronouns:
Clara wanted to dye her hair. (Whose hair? Clara's hair! Her replaces Clara.)
so she went to the store to buy hair dye, (Who went to the store? Clara! She replaces Clara.)
then she went home to dye her hair. (Whose hair? Clara's hair! Her replaces Clara.)
PARTIAL LIST OF PRONOUNS:
I, me, my
he, she, it, his, hers, its, him, her (Notice its has no apostraphe i.e. it's.)
yours, ours, us, you, they, theirs, them, those, these, who, whose, whom
Personal Pronouns refer to I, me, you, them, etc., while possessive pronouns refer to ownership, i.e. his, theirs, hers, etc.
||I, me||we, us|
||he, she, it, him, her||they, them|
|mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs|
The same words are often used as different parts of speech. A word may perform a certain function in one sentence and an entirely different function in another sentence.
Adjectives are commonly used as nouns, and nouns are often used as adjectives.
The red book is mine. (Red is an adjective describing the color of the book and restricting it from all books of another color.)
Red is my favorite color. (Red is a noun in this sentence. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Red is what the sentence is talking about. Red is a characteristic or quality of color.)
EXERCISES TO DO:
WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND UNDERLINE THE PRONOUNS:
MORE ABOUT PRONOUNS
Pronouns come in five different classes or types: Personal (First, Second, Third Persons), interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite, and relative.
A PERSONAL PRONOUN refers to the person spoken to, the person doing the speaking, or the person or thing spoken of.
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
FIRST PERSON PRONOUN (referring to the speaker)
I, my, mine, me (singular)
We, our, ours, us (plural)
SECOND PERSON PRONOUN (referring to the person spoken to)
you, your, yours (singular & plural forms)
COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
THIRD PERSON PRONOUN (referring to the person spoken of)
he, his, him, she, her, hers, it, its (singular)
they, their, theirs, them (plural)
REFLEXIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronoun refers to or reflects back on the subject)
Example: The child burned himself today.
Reflexive Personal Pronoun = himself (Himself is the same person as child.)
EMPHATIC OR INTENSIVE OF THE COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS
(When the pronoun is used to give emphasis)
I drank the tea myself. (Myself intensifies the pronoun I, putting emphasis on the pronoun I.)
Greg himself built the house. (Himself intensifies John, putting emphasis on the noun Greg.)
Never use these kinds of pronouns (himself) to substitute for a personal pronoun (he).
Incorrect: John and himself appreciate all that you've done.
(There is no noun or pronoun in this sentence to which himself refers to, so no emphasis or intensity can be given.)
Correct: John and he appreciate all that you've done.
Incorrect: He sent the check to Marie and myself.
(There is no noun or pronoun in this sentence to which myself refers to, so no emphasis or intensity can be given.)
Correct: He sent the check to Marie and me.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS (The function of each is to ask questions.)
(These pronouns may be the subject or the object of a verb or preposition.)
Who, whose, whom, which, what
Who is that lady? (Who is the subject.)
That lady is who? (Who is the object of the verb is.)
For whom was she inquiring? (Whom is the object of the preposition for.)
Who's should not be confused with whose. Who's means who is, while whose shows possession.
It's should not be confused with it is. It's means it is, while its shows possession.
The apostophe (') does not show the possessive form of a PERSONAL pronoun. It is a contraction of the pronoun and the verb. Example: Who's is a contraction for the pronoun who and the verb is.
Interrogative Pronouns often function as INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES.
Whose name did he call? (modifies name)
What time is it? (modifies time)
What book did he read? (modifies book)
Demonstrative Pronouns point out specific persons, places or things.
There are only two: 1. This (singular) these (plural) 2. That (singular) those (plural)
This is my cat. (a specific cat)
These are my cats. (specific cats)
That suitcase is mine. (a specific suitcase)
Those suitcases are mine. (specific suitcases)
Indefinite Pronouns do NOT point our particular persons, places or things.
Someone stole my car.
(Someone could be anyone. Indefinite!)
(My functions as an adjective modifying the noun car so my is called a DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE even though it is still considered an Indefinte Pronoun.)
(My points out a particular car. It is a definite adjective.)
A few of us left the meeting. (Few = indefinite number)
Something had to be done. (Something is too vague. Indefinite!)
Each child carried a sack of candy.
(Each modifies child but has no special function so each is an Indefinite Pronoun functioning as an INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE.)
Those lemons are delicious.
(Those modifies lemons but has no special function so those is an Indefinite Pronoun functioning as an INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE.)
Indefinite Pronouns DO NEED AN APOSTOPHE to show possession. You would not say everybody job. Instead you would say, everybody's job.
When else is added to an indefinite pronoun, it is considered to be part of the pronoun. When adding an apostophe to show possession, the s is added to else.
I returned from lunch with someone else's briefcase.
Who, that, which, what
Add ever or soever to a Relative Pronoun to make Compound Relative Pronouns.
whoever, whomever, whatever, whosoever, whatsoever, whosesoever, whichsoever, whomsoever, whichever
Relative Pronouns introduce clauses. A clauses is a word group found within a sentence that has its own subject and verb, unlike a phrase which does not include a subject or verb.
He gave the meat to whoever wanted it, for three days.
(Sentence) Subject = He, Verb = gave
(Clause) whoever wanted it (Subject = whoever, Verb = wanted)
(The Relative Pronoun whoever introduces the clause: whoever wanted it.)
(Phrase) for three days (no subject nor verb)
(The preposition for introduces the phrase.)
PRONOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES
These pronouns function as adjectives but retain the idea of possession.
David forgot his keys.
(The possessive form of the pronoun is used here. His functions as an adjective modifying coat, while retaining the idea of David possessing the coat, showing ownership of the same.)
These are her pets. (Her modifies pets, showing possession.)
I bought their car. (Their modifies car, showing possession.)
AGREEMENT OF PRONOUN WITH ANTECEDENT
A pronoun usually refers to a noun or pronoun which precedes it in the sentence. That word to which the pronoun refers to is called an antecedent.
Antecedent comes from the Latin which means "going before" and the antecedent of a pronoun is the word which goes before the pronoun. It is the word to which the pronoun refers.
Example: Margaret attended her workshop. (Her refers to the antecedent Margaret.)
Since a pronoun replaces a noun or pronoun, it must agree with that noun in person, number or gender.
Click the link below. Do the exercises.
EXERCISES TO DO